Lower Tract Abnormalities

Urachal abnormalities, from Campbell's

Bladder Abnormalities

Developmental anomalies

Bladder diverticula

Acquired bladder conditions

Urachal anomalies

Exstrophy reconstruction timeline, from Campbell's

Cloacal exstrophy grid for descriptions - O (omphalocele), B1 (bowel), HBL (hemibladder), HG (hindgut), HP (hemiphallus) - from Campbell's

Cloacal exstrophy reconstruction, from Campbell's

Exstrophy/Epispadias Complex

Epidemiology and Prenatal Diagnosis

Bladder considerations

Genital considerations

Other considerations

Repair considerations

Repair complications

Longterm issues (into adulthood)

Cloacal exstrophy

Eagle Barrett syndrome (Triad, Prune-Belly)

General considerations

GU findings

Non-GU findings



Effman classification of urethral duplication, from Campbell's

Posterior Urethral Valves and other Urethral Abnormalities



Initial management

Long term management

Anterior urethral valves

Other urethral abnormalities