Causes of Neuromuscular Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

Workup of PD patient with LUTS, from Sakakibara 2016

Diagnosing patients with LUTS and parkinsonism, from Sakakibara 2016

Cerebral diseases

Stroke (cerebrovascular accident)

Parkinson Disease (PD)

Parkinson+ syndromes

Multiple system atrophy (MSA)

Traumatic Brain Injury

Other diseases

Spinal cord diseases

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Spinal cord injury (SCI)

Spina bifida

Other diseases

Lower motor neuron diseases

Lumbar disc disease

Spinal stenosis (narrowing of canal/foramina)

Pelvic surgery



Guillain Barre Syndrome

Solomon-Greenwell nomogram for predicting female BOO, from Solomon 2017

Voiding syndromes

Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia

Dysfunctional voiding

Bladder neck dysfunction

Female bladder outlet obstruction

Bashful bladder (low-flow voiding)

Fowler syndrome

Post-operative urinary retention

Irradiated bladder

Defunctionalized bladder