Renal Failure, Vascular Disease, and Renal Transplants

Hyponatremia evaluation, from Campbell's

Hypernatremia evaluation, from Campbell's

Hyponatremia treatment, from Campbell's

Renal Function and Failure

Nephron basics

Sodium balance

Potassium balance

Acid/Base balance

Renal Tubule Acidoses

Potential pharmacologic causes of acute tubular necrosis, from Campbell's

Potential pharmacologic causes of acute interstitial nephritis, from Campbell's

Kidney Injury

Acute kidney injury causes

Management of intrarenal AKI

Management of atherosclerotic RAS, from Campbell's

Management of fibromuscular dyspasia, from Campbell's

Renovascular Hypertension

Renal artery stenosis

Criteria for workup of renovascular HTN

RAS Management

Fibromuscular dysplasia types

Type % total Cause Demographic Location Angiographic appearance Progression? Renal Failure?
Medial fibroplasia 75-85% Medial layer fibrosis Women 25-50yo Distal renal artery
extending into branches
String of beads Minimal No
Perimedial fibroplasia 10-25% Collagen deposits in outer medial layer Women 5-15yo Midrenal artery
extending into branches
String of beads Yes (occlusion) Yes
Intimal fibroplasia 10% Collagen deposits in intimal layer Children and young adults Proximal renal artery Stenosis with distal aneurysm/dissection Yes (occlusion) Yes
Medial hyperplasia 2-3% Smooth muscle hyperplasia without fibrosis

FMD management

Renal artery aneurysms

Renal Transplant

Who gets a transplant?

Workup to ensure good transplant candidacy

Urologic "clearance" for transplant

Complications

Sources