GU Imaging

CT Imaging

Specific CT protocols

Indications

MR Imaging

Phases

Indications

Gadolinium contrast reactions

Renal mass differentiation

T1 T2 Contrast enhancing? Diagnosis
Dark Bright Yes ccRCC
Heterogenous chromophobe RCC
Oncocytoma
Dark pRCC
fat-poor AML
Capsule leiomyoma
Bright Variable AML
Dark No Hemorrhagic cyst

US Imaging

Renal US

Bladder US

Transrectal Prostate US

Scrotal US

Penile/urethral US

Transperineal/translabial US

XR Imaging (Still images + Fluoroscopy)

Kidney/Ureter/Bladder (KUB) plain film

Retrograde pyelogram

Loopogram/Pouchogram

Retrograde urethrogram

Cystography

IV Urography

Angiography

Nuclear Medicine

Radiotracer Indication Notes
99Tc-DTPA Renal obstruction
Renal function
Renovascular hypertension
Ureteral reflux
Dependent on GFR
Excreted through filtration
99Tc-DMSA Cortical defects
Ectopic kidneys
Not good for imaging collecting system
Bound in renal tubules
99Tc-MAG3 Renal plasma flow
Renal obstruction
Renovascular hypertension
Renal transplant function
Cannot evaluate GFR (bound to plasma proteins)
Cleared by tubular secretion
11C-choline mPCa recurrence after treatment Not useful for primary disease
18F-fluciclovine
(Axumin)
Na18F Bone scan for metastatic disease (PCa, RCC, BCa, UTUC) Confirmatory imaging to differentiate cancer from benign lesions
68Ga-PMSA mPCa in primary and recurrent cancer
68Ga DOTATATE Neuroendocrine tumors Useful for metastatic PCC or extraadrenal tumors, but not benign PCC
111In Pentetreotide
18F-DOPA
(Fluorodopa)
Pheochromocytoma Less sensitive for metastatic disease
18F-Dopamine
(Fluorodopamine)
18F-FDG Identify cancers using aerobic glycolysis Locates areas of increased metabolic activity
Assess for recurrence
123I MIBG Identify pheochromocytoma Preferred over 131I MIBG

Renal scintigraphy

Non-prostatic oncologic imaging (FDG-PET)

Radiation Exposure

Radiation Dosage

Limiting exposure

Contrast

Adverse reactions

Mild contrast reaction

Moderate contrast reaction

Severe contrast reaction

Premedication regimens

Contrast nephropathy (CT contrast)

Sources