The Periodic Table of the Elements


11/118 (9%) Element Entries Completed

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No

List of Elements

Ac

Actinium

Al

Aluminum

Am

Americium

Sb

Antimony

Ar: Argon

Argon is the most common noble gas found in air, making up about 1% of our atmosphere, with only oxygen and nitrogen being more common. It was the first noble gas discovered when Ramsay and Raleigh realized that nitrogen isolated from air weighed more than nitrogen isolated from heating ammonia (the former contained argon, the latter did not). Argon is commonly used for lasers and welding, and geologic dating. Although reluctant to form compounds with other elements, scientists have combined it to form HArF.

Rasanen, Markku. "Argon out of thin air." Nature chemistry 6.1 (2014): 82-82.

As

Arsenic

At

Astatine

Ba: Barium

Barium is well-known in the medical world for being used as an oral (and rectal) contrast agent, in its insoluble sulfate form. Its increased density makes it stand out on X-ray, lighting up the GI tract. It is used in many other industries, including oil (increased drilling fluid density), automobile coatings (corrosion resistance), and rat poison (its soluble carbonate form). Barium poisoning affects calcium/potassium metabolism and can lead to cardiac abnormalities and paralysis. It also provides a pigment in ceramics and can be used in fireworks. In physics, it helped with the discovery of nuclear fission after it was found after uranium bombardment.

Fromm, Katharina M. "Barium bright and heavy." Nature chemistry 5.2 (2013): 146-146.

Bk

Berkelium

Be

Beryllium

Bi

Bismuth

Bh

Bohrium

Bh

Boron

Br

Bromine

Cd

Cadmium

Ca

Calcium

Cf

Californium

C

Carbon

Ce

Cerium

Cs

Cesium

Cl

Chlorine

Cr

Chromium

Co

Cobalt

Cn

Copernicium

Cu

Copper

Cm

Curium

Ds

Darmstadtium

Db

Dubnium

Dy

Dysprosium

Es

Einsteinium

Er

Erbium

Eu

Europium

Fm

Fermium

Fl

Flerovium

F

Fluorine

Fr

Francium

Gd

Gadolinium

Ga: Gallium

Ge

Germanium

Au

Gold

Hf

Hafnium

Hs

Hassium

He: Helium

The second lightest element, helium is commonly used to inflate balloons. Because it is so light, there is very little in the atmosphere as it can't be held by Earth's gravity. It only becomes liquid at 2 Kelvin, at which point it lacks viscosity and is used to cool superconducting magnets to remove electrical resistance. In order to prevent the buildup of nitrogen in divers' bodies, helium is used in the gas mix for extremely deep dives. Helium is used in different industries for lasers as well as pressurizing rocket fuel tanks. As a noble gas, it does not readily form compounds with other elements but scientists have been able to create very short lived compounds with some heavier elements.

Herman, Christine. "Cool as helium." Nature chemistry 4.2 (2012): 140-140.

Ho

Holmium

H

Hydrogen

In

Indium

I: Iodine

Iodine is well known in medicine for a couple reasons. It is used as an intravenous contrast agent, to illuminate organs and vessels. However, it can cause kidney damage in susceptible patients so it must be used cautiously. It is also a necessary element for production of thyroid hormone; iodine deficiency can lead to an enlarged thyroid gland, known as a goiter. Iodine is also used frequently in both organic and inorganic chemistry, in ways that I could not do justice in describing.

Metrangolo, Pierangelo, and Giuseppe Resnati. "Tracing iodine." Nature chemistry 3.3 (2011): 260-260.

Ir

Iridium

Fe

Iron

Kr: Krypton

Krypton was once infamous for defining the meter as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of the 605nm emission line. It is used in calorimeters which hold approximately 30 tons of liquid Krypton, which is the largest known concentration of the gas. It is combined to form KrF2, which is then used to form other more difficult compounds. In 1938 its name was borrowed by Siegel and Schuster as the planet of origin of Superman.

Lozinsek, Matic, and Gary J. Schrobilgen. "The world of krypton revisited." Nature Chemistry 8.7 (2016): 732-732.

La

Lanthanum

Lr

Lawrencium

Pb

Lead

Li

Lithium

Lv

Livermorium

Lu

Lutetium

Mg

Magnesium

Mn

Manganese

Mt

Meitnerium

Md

Mendelevium

Hg

Mercury

Mo

Molybdenum

Nd

Neodymium

Ne: Neon

Neon is recognized as the element which gives neon signs their red/orange glow. Considered by some to be the lightest of the noble gases, because they move helium to a new seat above beryllium. Evidence shows that neon compounds are much more unstable than helium compounds. It is combined with helium for lasers which are used for scanning barcodes and reading CDs.

Grandinetti, Felice. "Neon behind the signs." Nature chemistry 5.5 (2013): 438-438.

Np

Neptunium

Ni

Nickel

Nb

Niobium

N

Nitrogen

No

Nobelium

Os

Osmium

O

Oxygen

Pd: Palladium

You may remember the Wacker process from organic chemistry, which involves use of a palladium catalyst to convert a carbon-carbon double bond to an aldehyde group. Palladium has a specific electron conformation, making it an excellent catalyst (and better than platinum and nickel, the runner-ups).

Hartings, Matthew. "Reactions coupled to palladium." Nature chemistry 4.9 (2012): 764-764.

P

Phosphorus

Pt

Platinum

Pu

Plutonium

Po

Polonium

K

Potassium

Pm

Praseodymium

Pr

Promethium

Pa

Protactinium

Ra

Radium

Rn: Radon

Radon was discovered unofficially in 1899 by the Curies and officially in 1900 by Friedrich Dorn. However, the name radon was not made official until 1957, before which each isotope was referred to by its own name. The 222Rn isotope is infamous for entering homes through the basement and causing lung cancer. Radon detectors are used in homes to test for increased levels, though special detectors are needed for isotope 220Rn (aka Thoron), though it does not travel far from its source before decaying.

Thornton, Brett F., and Shawn C. Burdette. "Recalling radon's recognition." Nature chemistry 5.9 (2013): 804-804.

Re

Rhenium

Rh

Rhodium

Rg

Roentgenium

Rb

Rubidium

Ru

Ruthenium

Rf

Rutherfordium

Sm

Samarium

Sc

Scandium

Sg: Seaborgium

Named after Glenn Seaborg (discovered many of the heavier elements), it was discovered in 1974. Although only a few atoms are made at a time via particle bombardment, it is the heaviest element to be made into a carbonyl compound.

Düllmann, Christoph E. "Seaborgium's complex studies." Nature chemistry 7.9 (2015): 760.

Se

Selenium

Si

Silicon

Ag

Silver

Na

Sodium

Sr

Strontium

S

Sulfur

Ta

Tantalum

Tc

Technetium

Te

Tellurium

Tb

Terbium

Tl: Thallium

Thallium, unlike most other members of group 13, prefers the 1+ oxidative state, not the 3+ state. This allows it to mimic potassium and be taken up by our bodies, damaging the neurologic and GI systems and causing hair loss. However, if caught early, it can be treated with Prussian Blue. Thallium's existence as a colorless, tasteless element makes it appealing for murderers in both fact and fiction (The Pale Horse by Agatha Christie). Unfortunately, no other uses have been developed...yet.

Lennartson, Anders. "Toxic thallium." Nature chemistry 7.7 (2015): 610.

Th

Thorium

Tm

Thulium

Sn

Tin

Ti

Titanium

W

Tungsten

Uuo

Ununoctium

Uup

Ununpentium

Uus

Ununseptium

Uut

Ununtrium

U

Uranium

V

Vanadium

Xe: Xenon

Xenon is one of the heaviest noble gases but is much rarer than the lighter elements (one would expect them to be more likely to escape in the atmosphere). It has been shown that xenon can bond with oxygen instead of silicon in rocks, and this is possibly where all the missing xenon exists. Xenon was compounded with fluoride in 1962, the first noble gas to do so. It is used for silicon etching for semiconductors as well as an anesthetic (LENOXe) due to its hydrophobic properties. It is also ionized to provide thrust to interstellar space probes.

Dmochowski, Ivan. "Xenon out of its shell." Nature chemistry 1.3 (2009): 250-250.

Yb

Ytterbium

Y

Yttrium

Zn

Zinc

Zr

Zirconium